Funny clowns, delicate crawlers and charming tricks - eared short-legged conquered the whole world, and are not going to take positions. But the dog breed Dachshund, in addition to sociability and affection, was and remains a hunting one. These are extremely active, curious and smart little friends who do not want to be bored on the couch. Despite the fact that the characteristics of the Dachshund breed make these dogs wonderful companions, one cannot forget about the past of the brave shorty.
The first images of dogs with shortened paws were found during excavations of the tomb of Thutmose III: on frescoes dated to 1400. BC, the pharaoh is drawn, accompanied by squat dogs of a stretched format. The ancient origin of the Dachshund breed is confirmed by images of similar dogs on coins, amphorae, clay tablets, on the walls of Roman, Greek and Assyrian tombs.
It is still unclear how the Dachshund breed was bred: some geneticists believe that they could not do without closely related crosses, while others call the cause of spontaneous mutation. Whatever it was, but by the XVII century, smart brisk little men earned respect among German hunters. Of course, at that time the standard of the Dachshund breed did not yet exist; it was adopted only in 1880. But the lack of a pedigree book did not prevent the passionate and greedy animals from spreading around the country and abroad.
Full of dangers and surprises, the history of the Dachshund breed went along winding paths and tunnels of "dungeons" - badger and fox holes. Once upon a time these animals were hunted with the help of small terriers, but dogs often died: either excitement overshadowed the mind, or a narrow passage prevented the compact dog from turning in time. A badger weighs about 30 kg, plus the sharpest claws! But the features of the Dachshund breed turned out to be ideal for baiting prey hiding underground: short legs, a flexible long body, the ability to assess the situation and act logically, even when faced with the "enemy" face to face.
The ancestors of the dachshunds were smooth-haired and somewhat larger than modern ones. Only in the middle of the XIX century a description of the dwarf dachshund breed appeared, and a little later the dogs diversified their “wardrobe” - in addition to dachshund dachshunds, shorties with elongated and stiff hair appeared. The long-haired variation is thought to be the result of crossbreeding dachshunds and spaniels. But the wire-haired short-legs are the fruit of the love of dachshunds and schnauzers, scotch and dandy-dinmont terriers.
The official name adopted in the homeland of these dogs reflects the characteristic of the Dachshund breed - the Germans use the old "dachshund". In per. with him. - badger dog. But such a specialized "name" does not prevent sensitive hunters from taking the first lines of world ratings "Most Popular Dogs for Home and Family".
A beautiful elongated muzzle, a penetrating gaze, touching hanging ears, a long body and short legs - the breed of dachshund dogs is recognizable in any country where cynology is developed. Therefore, we will not describe the appearance for a long time, we will dwell on the shortcomings that affect health and put an end to the show career: crooked paws, back or tail, “low” chest - it seems as if the dog is about to rub its chest against asphalt, small, folded or pointed ears, pointed or rough muzzle. Eye color is important - as dark as possible. Blue color is allowed only for marble dogs.
When planning to buy a puppy, buyers often ask themselves: "What are the breeds of dachshunds?" The confusion with sizes, colors and types of wool is unsettling, although the variety of choices is definitely pleasing. And whatever the dachshund, it is always recognizable and always has a unique character inherent in this breed. So, starting from the sizes, there are three variations:
Standard rate - weight from 7 to 9 kg, chest circumference from 35 cm;
Miniature dachshund - weight from 5 to 7 kg, chest circumference from 30 to 35 cm;
Rabbit dachshund - weight about 4 kg, chest girth up to 30 cm.
In this case, the description of the breed rabbit dachshund and miniature dachshund entirely coincide with the description of the standard dachshund. Of course, if you do not take into account differences in the type of coat, which are also three:
Smooth haired dachshund - hairs are short, glossy, perfectly even, perfectly fit to the skin. There is practically no undercoat;
Long haired dachshund - hairs are straight and elongated, especially on the back of the legs, stomach, tail and ears. The undercoat is moderately developed. The dog should not be overgrown, there should not be parting on the back;
Wire-haired dachshund - hairs are stiff, to the touch resemble a wire, shiny, with undercoat. The shortest coat is on the ears. The body is slightly longer. On the muzzle there is a “beard”, bushy bunches on the eyebrows, the hair is ruffled and sticking out on the back of the paws.
If you start from the color, then the description of the breed dwarf dachshund with smooth hair is no different from the description of the standard long-haired dachshund. The same colors are allowed for these two types of coat, regardless of the size of the dog:
- solid red or yellowish color;
- classic two-tone - brown or black with tan tan;
- brindle - red with stripes of black;
- marble - gray, black or red with beige or gray spots.
But the description of the breed rabbit dachshund or any other dachshund with hard hair is somewhat different. The color of such dogs is called wild boar - the pigment is distributed over the fur zones, with an alternation of dark and light areas. There is only one option, but diversity anyway - genetically black can be completely dark or grayish, light areas - yellow, red or almost brown.
But! Returning to the question: “What are the breeds of dachshunds?”, I would like to note that all this grandeur is one breed, with a single standard. These are variations, with a slight difference in descriptions, and not individual breeds.
Character and training
It does not matter who your choice is - the breed of dogs is a dwarf or standard dachshund - funny little men are friendly towards people, with a bit of curiosity and without a trace of aggression. These are contact, sociable and very smart pets. The dachshund is able to cheer up in any situation, constantly makes the owner laugh and surprises strangers, working out new tricks.
Dachshunds are very stubborn and amazingly smart. These dogs need a systematic upbringing, like training and trainings, and quickly learn teams. A bored dachshund will find something to do - it will tear apart a sofa, parquet or even tile.
However, the history of the Dachshund breed clearly hints to us that these dogs are not typical pet pets. Thousands of years of evolution have turned them into unsurpassed passionate hunters. Leaving aside the "research" cravings of a pet, the owner risks becoming the owner of a stubborn, wayward and naughty beech. In order for the dachshund to please the family with good manners and a light mood, it must be able to realize instincts - long walks in nature, "excavations" in the area, the pursuit of "prey", which the ball will successfully replace.
Maintenance and care
Even if the dog has to conquer the show peaks, observing the standard of the Dachshund breed costs nothing: no complicated haircuts, tedious styling, combing, papillot and hairdryer drying. Regardless of the type of hair, the dachshund is easy to put in order - the hairs do not get tangled and do not fall into tangles, do not smell like a dog, the hair sheds moderately. The only moment is to monitor the purity of the hanging ears, avoiding the accumulation of moisture.
In terms of content, everything is also simple. The dachshund will be conveniently accommodated in any apartment if the owner walks the pet for a long time. Conflicts with children - nonsense. These dogs are friends with cats, with proper upbringing. Only here, the bird-mouse-rabbit should be locked in a reliable cage - the hunting instinct does not sleep!
There are specific diseases of Dachshund dogs that are inherited. Pest of the breed - defects of the intervertebral discs, which sooner or later lead to infringement of the spinal nerves and paralysis. In addition, dachshunds suffer from a rare skin disease - black acanthosis. Problems can be avoided by buying a puppy from trusted manufacturers.
The development of no less dangerous, but not specific diseases can be affected by insufficient care for a dog of a Dachshund breed and poor-quality feeding. The consequences typical for the breed are retinal atrophy and obesity. Marble dogs have their own problems - blue-eyed puppies are often born deaf and / or prone to allergies.
But in general, if the puppy is genetically healthy, and the owner properly cares for the pet, the dachshund can be called a strong, hardy and long-lived breed. The main thing is not to buy a puppy from divorcees and on the "bird".
A short story about a long dog
The charming taxi driver nicknamed Valdi, flaunting in a colorful T-shirt, was the first official mascot of the Olympic Games. Until 1972, such a concept simply did not exist, so Valdi can be considered the first animal inspiration of athletes and fans. The summer games in Munich were held under the motto "Persistence, tenacity and dexterity." And the dachshund, according to the organizers, was the best suited for the role of a symbol of the qualities so necessary for athletes.
Watch the video: ALL ABOUT LIVING WITH DACHSHUNDS (April 2020).