What problems with the excretory system do pet owners most often face? Constipation, periodic cases of diarrhea - and nothing more. Moreover, in most cases, such troubles happen with puppies, the digestive and excretory system of which simply did not have time to develop to the proper degree. But prolapse of the rectum in a dog is a much more serious problem, fraught even with necrosis and septic effects.
What is it, what is happening?
This is the name of the pathology, in which some part of the rectum, as it were, turns outward, protruding from the anus of the animal. This phenomenon not only does not shine with beauty from an aesthetic point of view, but is also extremely dangerous in terms of injuries and bleeding. In addition, in an animal with such a pathology, the act of defecation is violated for completely natural reasons, which also does not add to the health of the dog.
The reasons why this disease develops are many. This includes diseases of the gastrointestinal tract itself, as well as pathologies of the urinary and reproductive systems. In principle, dogs of all ages and breeds have a risk of the disease, but more often there is prolapse of the rectum in the puppy, as well as those animals that suffer from infectious diseases of the digestive system. Especially high danger in cases of helminthiases and coprostasis.
With the latest diseases, the dog constantly pushes and strains very much, which can contribute to the "descent" of the rectum from its natural place. In old animals, tumoral diseases can lead to a similar outcome, since they also cause (not always) signs of constipation and severe attempts. Bitches often suffer from prolapse "to the load" to the pyometer. This disease is also able to cause persistent, convulsive attempts, which is also fraught with problems with the rectum.
It is extremely important for the veterinarian to immediately determine the causes of rectal prolapse, since if this is not done, a relapse of the disease is possible.
Important! Dogs do not have hemorrhoids, so for any suspicious "effects" you observe in your pet’s rear area, you should immediately contact your veterinarian. Most likely, these signs speak of something quite serious.
In principle, the clinical manifestations of the disease are quite characteristic, it is difficult to confuse them with other pathologies. To begin with, a lump falls out of the anus or some kind of "bump" begins to stick out. The color of this foreign object varies from pinkish (in the first few minutes), but then, when hyperemia develops, the piece becomes red, cyanotic, somewhat burgundy.
If nothing is done, the organ dries quickly, deep cracks, abrasions, foci of necrosis can appear on its surface. Since there are a lot of blood vessels in the rectum, serious bleeding is possible with the slightest damage. Again, if the animal does not have any medical care, all this will end up extremely sad.
Important! As a rule, rectal prolapse (the second name of the pathology) does not develop “suddenly and now”, but after a rather significant period of time.
It follows from this that the primary signs of the pathology appear gradually, they need to be searched at the moment when the dog goes to the toilet "for the most part." At this time, a small "bump", that is, a small piece of the rectum, may protrude from the anus.
Attention!Keep in mind that not only it can protrude ... Much more dangerous is the loss of part of the small intestine. How to determine what exactly you are dealing with? Take an ordinary medical thermometer, grease its end with sterile vegetable oil or petroleum jelly, and then try to gently straighten the fallen piece of the intestine back.
If you feel that under the end of the thermometer there is some dense, “sinewy” mass that stubbornly does not want to set itself, then most likely this is the rectum. In the case when the organ segment is thinner, and it can easily be pushed back, there is reason to beware. Most likely, your pet has lost a part of the thin section, which is already fraught with invaginations and inversion. Since this is extremely dangerous, take him to the vet immediately!
If the rectum has already decided to loudly declare its existence to the whole world, and its tip protrudes from the anus, then everything is clear. In those cases where the presence of pathology is doubtful, it is necessary to perform a full medical examination of your dog, including a complete blood count. Of course, it is difficult to judge prolapse by the results of a blood test, but they will help to detect concomitant and predisposing diseases (if any). If we are talking only about prolapse, there will be (most likely) no abnormalities in the blood test, although elevated levels of white blood cells can be observed. But even this is relevant only for advanced, chronic cases. It is also very important to check feces, through which you can determine the presence or absence of helminths.
Radiography and ultrasound of the abdominal cavity are mandatory, with which you can detect a sharply enlarged, inflamed prostate in males, an enlarged and filled uterus in females, foreign bodies, thickening of the walls of the bladder or kidney stones.
Also, the veterinarian will palpate the affected organ. Sometimes (in doubtful cases) a diagnostic biopsy is practiced. It is carried out to determine the prospects of the prolapsed gut: if its tissues are alive, you can simply adjust it. Otherwise, an urgent operation is required.
If your dog has a parallel bacterial or viral infection, or helminthic invasion, then you will first need to eliminate these pathologies, since without their treatment it is pointless to eliminate the loss. Along the way, the task of the veterinarian is to stop the inflammatory process and swelling of the fallen piece of the rectum, after which it is corrected.
This is done with a gentle, gentle massage of the affected area, followed by the application of painkillers. In the not so distant past, the fallen rectum was coated with ... sugar syrup. Sugar drained excess fluid, returning the affected body to its normal volume. Epidural anesthesia should generally be used for pain relief. However, the methods depend on the size of your pet, as well as on its physiological condition.
If treatment is successful, then a circular (purse-string) suture is applied to the tissue near the anus, which will prevent relapse of the disease. It is important to apply suture material so that it does not interfere with the physiological act of defecation.
Alas, with the neglected case, when the tissues of the prolapsed rectum have already undergone necrotic phenomena, one has to resort to resection. Simply put, a dead piece of an organ is simply cut off, and its edges are sutured to the anus. This method is used only in extreme cases, since after the intervention, the animal often develops fecal incontinence, other problems with the organs of the excretory system.
Diet is very important!If the intestine was set on a small puppy, then it is possible to do without special events. Let the baby just feed on mother's milk, and in the process of tissue growth around the rectum they will strengthen themselves, which will prevent loss in the future.
For mature and old animals, “light” feeding with food that is well and completely absorbed is necessary. Middle-aged dogs need more meat and high-quality offal, while “old men” need to reduce the amount of protein ... But at the same time, you don’t need to transfer the dog to porridge! They have a lot of fiber, which is not processed by the dog’s body, and in some cases causes severe constipation.
As you might guess, this can trigger a new case of prolapse of the rectum. In a word, if a pet is not of its first youth, it is better to "lean" on broths and vegetables, rubbed through a sieve or passed through a blender. Veterinarians also recommend the use of mixtures and mashed potatoes for baby food. True, this is more true for "compact" doggies, as in the case of large dogs you can go broke feeding.