Many diseases of small pets are not particularly dangerous for them, provided they are timely detected and treated. But some pathologies are not so easy to identify, but, in addition, they can develop into something more serious. An ideal example of such an ailment is dog hyperplasia.
This is the name of the pathological process in which tissue cells begin to grow rapidly. Moreover, it is to grow, and not randomly share, as is the case with cancerous tumors. In particular, with prostatic hyperplasia, the size of the latter can reach an orange! However, this joy is not enough for a sick animal: such a rapid increase in cell volume provokes severe pain in the affected organs. In addition, at least 40% of cases of hyperplasia eventually end with oncology.
But not everything is so scary. For example, gum hyperplasia in dogs during puppyhood is normal, as teeth grow at this time. But the same process, if it begins against the background of stomatitis, can lead to cancer of the oral cavity.
What tissues are most often affected by this disease? In most cases, only glandular tissues and epithelial cells undergo changes. Simply put, the same hyperplasia in dogs during estrus is a disease of the mammary glands. Damage to the vagina and / or uterus is sometimes noted. Other organs from this pathology suffer much less often.
The external manifestations of this disease do not look very attractive, since in females from the external genitalia something similar to a piece of viscera hangs. In fact, this is just a monstrously swollen vulva.
With vaginal hyperplasia, mucosal proliferation usually occurs during or shortly before estrus. Initially, the surface of the vulva that fell out of the vagina is smooth and shiny, but gradually it undergoes severe hyperemia, ulcers and cracks appear on its surface. The act of urination can be accompanied by severe pain. But approximately 30% of the dogs do not have these symptoms, and the only sign of problems is the reluctance to allow cage and extremely aggressive behavior towards the dog. Most often, pathology occurs in boxers, Great Dane, German Shepherd dogs, Labradors and English Bulldogs. In the latter, by the way, with estrus, hyperplasia of the soft palate can be observed.
Therapy and prognosis
What is the treatment? If your pet belongs to this 30%, then your intervention or the help of a veterinarian will not be required: when the estrus is over, the hormonal background will return to normal, and the swollen vulva tissue will return to its normal parameters. As for cases when the tissue still fell out of the vagina, it is necessary to use moisturizing and healing ointments, as well as dressings used to protect such a delicate organ from possible damage.
It is important to prevent licking, for which surgical collars are used. If it comes to inflammation (dirt, or as a result of injury), the surface of the vulvar mucosa is inflamed and festering, surgical intervention and a long course of antibiotic therapy may be required. But this is better not to bring, and immediately take the affected animal to the veterinarians.
In most cases, the prognosis for the disease is favorable, despite the fact that hyperplasia may well return to the next hunting cycle. Alas, if the dog is predisposed to the occurrence of this pathology, the only 100% effective solution to the problem is the removal of the uterus and ovaries.
This variety is much more common, and its consequences are much worse than in the previous case. How does it all start? As in the case considered by us above, the main trigger is hormonal failure in the body, and therefore the disease develops against estrus, pregnancy, close birth, or treatment, during which progesterone is used.
The clinical picture in this case is very similar to mastitis: the area adjacent to the nipples greatly increases in volume. In special cases, the nipples sag almost to the knee joint. On palpation, a soft, pasty tissue is felt. Unlike mastitis, the animal does not experience pain during this operation. In addition, exudate does not ooze from the mammary glands, the local temperature is not elevated.
Unlike vaginal hyperplasia, the diagnosis of breast damage is significantly complicated. If almost any experienced breeder can distinguish this pathology from mastitis, then it simply won’t be able to differentiate this process from the initial stages of oncology. This will require a biopsy. A piece of tissue is taken, which is then carefully examined by a veterinary cytologist.
What is the therapy? First, all hormonal drugs, if any, are canceled. Secondly, animals are prescribed progesterone and prolactin inhibitors. All this time, the dog should be closely monitored by the veterinarian: if the process deteriorates, then the dog may need to be sterilized, simultaneously removing all the swollen mammary glands. The reason is simple - the possibility of developing breast cancer.
If you think that the disease affects only females, then in vain. In particular, males are sometimes diagnosed with prostatic hyperplasia. Occasionally, cystic hyperplasia in dogs occurs in veterinary practice when ovaries affected by cysts begin to grow rapidly. In this case, you have to completely remove them.